Space Situational Awareness Agreements

A State responsible for a national space activity (including the activities of non-State bodies, even if they are completely independent of the government in terms of status and behaviour), may use registration as a means of ensuring that it has adequate “jurisdiction and control” to assume its responsibilities, especially when it runs the risk of being a “State of departure”, to be liable for damage caused by space objects. A violation of this condition at each stage of an activity will result in civil penalties. Additional criminal penalties may be imposed for activities involving the launch of spacecraft. An offence may also be a reason why the Minister amends, suspends or revokes an operator`s licence or authorization. “Space debris” has not been formally defined by international or national law. for the purposes of international treaties; Space vehicles, satellites, abandoned missiles and coatings remain “space objects”, regardless of their degree of operation or purpose. The most comprehensive SSA data exchange initiative is the Space Track project, overseen by us Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM) and us Joint Force Space Component Command (JFSCC). The project provides space operators with various SSA services via its website, including maneuver assessments and collision warnings. In addition, operators who register on the site have the option to add their spatial objects to the project tracking catalog. Another SST application concerns the detection and prediction of decay of much of the space debris – usually satellites or high schools that are not functioning – that can re-enter the atmosphere and possibly endanger people or infrastructure on the ground. In order to mitigate the impact of space debris, spacecraft operators need to know where other satellites and fragments are located.

As part of the SSA, ESA is developing and demonstrating the technologies needed to find and track debris and warn satellite operators who control our vital meteorological, navigation, telecommunications and scientific research satellites, should escape measures be required. ANGELS Aerospace is the operator of a medium-sized Earth observation satellite equipped with a separate propulsion system. The satellite is in synchronous solar orbit, in service for several years and is reaching the end of its operating life. At regular intervals, the satellite performs ascent maneuvers to keep its orbital height fixed. Before proceeding with a climb maneuver, it is standard for a maneuver plan to be submitted to the JFSCC “Space Track” information service SSA. . . .

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